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What is the lower respiratory tract and why does it embody the wisdom of nature?

2024-05-21 Update From: SLTechnology News&Howtos shulou NAV: SLTechnology News&Howtos > IT Information >


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This article comes from the official account of Wechat: SF Chinese (ID:kexuejiaodian), author: SF

Fractal patterns are common in nature, characterized by the fact that each part of the pattern has the same shape. The most common are branches, and there are many other tree-like structures, such as human respiratory tract, tidal trees and so on. In addition, snowflakes, Roman cauliflower, ammonites and repeated mirrors are also fractal patterns.

The lower respiratory tract is a fractal pattern in the human body, the nose, pharynx and larynx are collectively called the upper respiratory tract. Trachea, bronchi (including primary bronchi, secondary bronchi and tertiary bronchi) and lung organs, collectively referred to as the lower respiratory tract.

The structure of the human lower respiratory tract. (photo Source: Wikipedia) for the lower respiratory tract, the primary bronchus is separated from the trachea and is divided into two branches, which carry gas to the lungs on the left and right sides. Our left lung is divided into upper and lower lobes, and the right lung is divided into upper, middle and lower lobes. The secondary bronchi from the primary bronchi deliver gas to each lobe of the lungs. The secondary bronchus divides the tertiary bronchi, which is responsible for an area called the lung segment. The left and right lungs usually have 10 segments.

We know that in the lungs, the basic unit of substance exchange is the alveoli. So, from the third bronchus to the alveoli, it usually takes 23 to 25 branches.

The trachea of the lungs is like a growing tree, growing bifurcations step by step. The reason for this structure is that our lungs have limited space, but we need a larger breathing area to meet the needs of material exchange, and this fractal pattern just meets this demand.

Fractal pattern may be a beautiful and simple solution put forward by nature in order to solve some complex problems.

The embodiment of fractal principle in other organs Fractal is actually a kind of self-similarity. In the human body, similar structures also appear in the brain, nervous system, blood vessels, and digestive system.

For example, blood vessels account for only 5% of the total volume of the human body, but they transport blood to all parts of the body, using the principle of fractal. Arteries are divided into aorta, large arteries, arterioles and arterioles; veins are divided into great veins, middle veins, venules, venules and some atypical veins; in addition, there are many capillaries connecting arterioles and venules.

Or the small intestine. The small intestine curls repeatedly in the abdominal cavity, and each segment looks like a bulge. In the interior of the small intestine, the mucous membrane will form many folds, and many finger-like protrusions, namely villi, will protrude from the folds. This layer of structure also forms a fractal pattern, which is also formed to increase the surface area.

Some scientists believe that fractal is the inevitable choice of biological growth and development, and the repeated use of simple mechanisms on different scales can produce complex structures and complete complex life activities.

Tidal trees: "trees" planted by nature on tidal flats in nature, tides also produce fractal patterns. The current outlines the tidal ditches on the tidal flat, overlooking from high above, the tidal ditches are like towering trees growing on the beach. At the seaside, the trunk of the tide tree faces the sea and its branches face the land.

In addition to the seaside, in inland areas, rivers can also form tidal trees. Even the snow in the snow-capped mountains melts and accumulates periodically with the season, forming a tree-shaped fractal pattern.

In this picture, we can see the snow-capped mountains of the Himalayas in the north, as well as the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers converging into the Bay of Bengal in the south. We can look in the picture to see what fractal patterns there are. (photo source: Wikipedia)

There is a view that appreciating fractal patterns can relieve stress, so let's enjoy some more of these patterns.

(photo source: Pixabay, Pexels)

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