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Solar activity, what is coronal mass ejection

2024-07-13 Update From: SLTechnology News&Howtos shulou NAV: SLTechnology News&Howtos > IT Information >


Shulou( Report--

According to the report of the National Space Weather Monitoring and early warning Center, there were four coronal mass ejections (CME) on November 27 and 28 UTC.

Coronal mass ejection (CME) is an extreme manifestation of solar activity, just as the sun suddenly feels "uncomfortable" and sneezes four times in space. These four sneezes are not only the external manifestation of the internal activities of the sun, but also have an impact on our earth.

Just as we may spread a cold virus by sneezing in a cold winter, this series of sneezes from the sun may spread some "viruses" in the universe, that is, charged particles and magnetic fields. These substances may interact with the Earth's magnetic field, causing geomagnetic storms.

So, what is coronal mass ejection (CME)? What on earth is the cause of the sun's "cold"? How did he infect the earth? Here are the answers for you one by one:

What is coronal mass ejection (CME)? Coronal mass ejection (CME), as its name implies, is the mass ejection that occurs in the corona. So, let's take a look at the position of the corona in the sun.

The sun is the central star of our solar system, and its structure is divided into three main parts: the core, the radiation layer and the troposphere. At the core of the sun, nuclear fusion continues, fusing hydrogen nuclei into helium, releasing large amounts of energy. The radiation layer is the area where energy is transferred through radiation, while the troposphere transmits energy through gas convection. The surface of the sun is called the photosphere and is made up of elements such as hydrogen and helium. The chromosphere and corona above the photosphere form the sun's atmosphere, showing the sun's unique "chromosphere" and "corona" phenomena.

Coronal mass ejection (CME) is a very sudden and strong phenomenon in the solar atmosphere, which shows that the solar corona (corona) releases a large amount of plasma and magnetic field, which is ejected into space at a very high speed. These plasmas contain charged particles, mainly electrons and protons, as well as the sun's magnetic field.

(the eruption process of coronal mass ejection observed by SOHO LASCO C2)

Coronal mass ejection (CME) is a part of solar activity, especially at the peak of the solar cycle, its frequency may increase. It's like the sun suddenly sneezing, throwing part of the sun's matter into space at high speed.

What causes the sun's "cold" this time? This unexpected event stems from the instability caused by the magnetic field activity in the interior of the sun. The instability of the magnetic field can cause the sun to release a lot of plasma and magnetic field, just like the sun has the flu and keeps sneezing.

In daily life, the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. To some extent, the sun has become a quarter of our human life. The sun seems to be very stable and will always clock in on time. However, unlike people's impression of the sun, the sun is an extremely unstable existence, and the sun's magnetic field often "periodically turns its face".

The magnetic field of the sun is an extremely dynamic and complex system. It goes through a solar cycle of about 11 years. During this cycle, the sun's magnetic field reverses, from the South Pole to the North Pole, and then back. This process is called the solar activity cycle, and its periodic variation is caused by the magnetic activity inside the sun.

(the source of the reversal diagram of the solar magnetic field: author wtamu)

(sunspot and solar cycle map source: national Observatory) during the peak of the solar cycle, the sun's magnetic field becomes more active, producing sunspots (sunspots) and other phenomena. These sunspots are significant signs of magnetic activity, and they are concentrated on the surface of the sun, indicating that the magnetic field is more complex and intense in these regions. When the magnetic field becomes too complex or unstable in a certain area, it may lead to the release of energy, resulting in coronal mass ejection (CME).

How does coronal mass ejection (CME) "infect" the earth? After reading this article, everyone must know that the sun has caught a cold, and coronal mass ejection (CME) is his "sneeze", so will the earth, as a "close contact", also suffer from "droplet transmission"? The answer is yes.

Matter produced by the sun's "sneeze" flies into space in a high-speed way, and this release of a large number of charged particles and magnetic fields forms a huge solar wind that spreads into the universe. At this time, when this part of the solar matter moves toward the earth, it may interact with the earth's magnetic field, causing the earth's magnetic field to be disturbed in a short time, and then trigger a geomagnetic storm, which may affect the direction and intensity of the earth's magnetic field. At the same time, ionization processes are triggered in the upper atmosphere, resulting in temporary and drastic changes in the earth's magnetic field.

The outbreak of geomagnetic storms may have an extensive and far-reaching impact on human scientific and technological infrastructure. Advanced technology systems such as satellite systems, navigation equipment and communication networks are likely to be disturbed and damaged in extreme cases. When the earth is impacted by a very large geomagnetic storm, the communication signal may be seriously disturbed, which may lead to the interruption of the function of the communication system and cause unnegligible trouble to the social and economic activities. This emergency may threaten people's daily life and the normal operation of emergency communication systems. Therefore, monitoring and understanding of geomagnetic storms and taking corresponding technical measures are necessary measures to ensure the stable operation of scientific and technological infrastructure in modern society.

Does the sun often catch a cold? Is it serious this time? According to national standards, the early warning of geomagnetic storms is usually based on the KP index, which is calculated by the K index of 13 geomagnetic stations in the global geomagnetic network. It is used to represent global geomagnetic activity, with a value every 3 hours, ranging from 0 to 9. , 9 Murray 90. The gradual increase of its value indicates that the geomagnetic disturbance increases gradually. In daily early warning, Kp=5 and 6 are generally called medium and small geomagnetic storms, and Kp=7, 8 and 9 are called geomagnetic storms.

There was a major geomagnetic storm in April 2023, and the kp index reached 8. CCTV also made a special report. The intensity of the geomagnetic storm in April does not depend on the strength of the space particles, but on the direction of the coronal mass ejection, which is aimed directly at the Earth. This geomagnetic storm is expected to be a moderate or geomagnetic storm, which is not as strong as in the first half of the year and will not have a particularly significant impact on our daily life.

(pictures of coronal mass ejection observations on April 21 this year / National Satellite Meteorological Center) postscript this solar cold also brought some special "benefits"-beautiful auroras. It is reported that auroras may have appeared in North America on November 30. According to the usual practice, there will be a wider range of auroral activity in the next few days, when auroras are likely to be seen in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, as well as in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and northern Heilongjiang. Under the last strong geomagnetic disturbance in April, many people watched the aurora in Karamay, Xinjiang. Many netizens are deeply shocked by the beauty of the aurora. At present, the northeast, which has a dry and cold winter bonus, has less clouds in the sky and is more likely to see the aurora.

This article comes from the official account of Wechat: stone popular Science Studio (ID:Dr__Stone), author: Zhao Qingyu

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