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What is radiation?

2024-04-22 Update From: SLTechnology News&Howtos shulou NAV: SLTechnology News&Howtos > IT Information >


Shulou( Report--

This article comes from the official account of Wechat: Earth knowledge Bureau (ID:diqiuzhishiju), text: the sound of vegetation in the forest

A flight attendant who often works on a transoceanic polar route "died of stomach cancer linked to cosmic radiation", South Korea's labor and social security department has ruled, reviving concerns about radiation.

Cosmic radiation can be a work-related injury to flight attendants?

(figure: the joongan) ▼

Radiation in people's impression, like a ubiquitous super invisible killer. No matter it is clothing or cactus, as long as it is put on the name of "radiation protection", it will sell well and sell very well. Even a few years ago, gravitational waves, which were finally detected by scientists with the most sophisticated instruments in the world, could become "anti-gravitational wave radiation" gimmicks.

In recent years, concerns and farces related to "electromagnetic radiation" caused by base stations and substations have been staged in communities all over the country.

People who don't understand the nature of radiation.

Often influenced by rumors of "harmful radiation" on "radiation" discoloration

In fact, radiation is all around us, it is already everywhere, and it is not all as harmful as nuclear sewage in Japan.

Radiation, originally "pure natural" despite the cold wave, most places are still in the crisp autumn season. Looking at the sunshine outside the window, I can't help but want to go for a walk and bask in the sun. At this point, you are already receiving radiation-sunlight 150 million kilometers away.

Or, a cat that likes to bask in the sun, likes cats that are exposed to solar radiation.

So, what exactly is radiation?

In fact, radiation only refers to the process of electromagnetic wave generation and expansion, which is common in nature. The light that illuminates the world is a kind of electromagnetic wave.

In general, radiation can be divided into two categories: ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation. Electromagnetic radiation has almost no effect on us in our daily life. To put it bluntly, it is just the electromagnetic field around us.

Radiation is actually a neutral physics word ▼.

The nuclear radiation that everyone talks about is high-energy ionizing radiation, which is released by atoms.

It is called ionizing radiation because it has higher energy and propagates in the form of high-energy electromagnetic waves or particles, which can make the electrons in the atom out of the "control" of the nucleus and change the physical and chemical properties of the object. The longer the wavelength of the radiation, the easier it is to penetrate the object (the propagation in the water varies).

This is a symbol that we often see in related movies and TV dramas.

Is the danger symbol of ionizing radiation.

In daily life, the only place that is likely to be exposed to ionizing radiation is part of the equipment of the radiology department of the hospital. The thick lead door at the door of the radiology department is an important means of protection. Even ionizing radiation is safe in a certain dose range, and occasional examinations in the radiology department in the hospital will not have any impact on health.

In the radiology examination program, X-ray examination (commonly known as "film"),

Both CT and radiography have ionizing radiation.

As long as you don't do frequent tests, you don't have to worry about radiation at all.

As a matter of fact, all kinds of radiation have long been all around us. Even if you hide in a dark cave, there is still a little radiation in the soil, water, rock and air, and even the natural radionuclides in bananas.

At the same time, very few rays in the universe also pass through the atmosphere. These constitute the inevitable natural background radiation around us.

In fact, we are exposed to radiation ▼ in the environment all the time.

In fact, everyone who is watching the article in front of the screen is also a source of radiation. As long as there is a difference between the temperature and the surrounding temperature, any object can transmit energy by electromagnetic waves, which is called thermal radiation. At the same time, every object is receiving radiation from the outside world.

Radiation, it's everywhere.

The principle of thermal imager is based on the infrared radiation of the object surface.

Convert thermal energy into electrical signals, scan and image

Unexpectedly, the strongest source of radiation in our lives is not the hospital radiology department, nor is it a security machine. It's the lungs of an old smoker. Tobacco contains a large number of radionuclides polonium-210, lead-210 and radium-210. Therefore, if you want to avoid radiation, you should first quit smoking, while there is no need to worry about the radiation from the daily power system and household electricity.

Come from afar, it will not "radiation" you in the wilderness of Xinjiang, the distribution of a large area of wind power plants. When the wind comes, the colorless force drives the tens of meters-long blades to rotate, and the resulting electricity will flow thousands of miles away, lighting up thousands of lights in the north and south of the river. For China, which has a large power generation province and a large power consumption province at the east and west ends respectively, it is an inevitable choice to "send electricity from west to east" and let the current pass thousands of kilometers.

A big windmill standing on the Gobi

Convert the wilderness wind into electricity and send it to a distant city

However, it is not easy to send electricity far away. Before the breakthrough in room temperature superconducting technology (inexplicably want to @ South Korean room temperature superconducting team), long-distance transmission will face an essential problem: wire resistance. At present, the resistance of the widely used copper wire is as high as 0.0172 ohms / m.

In order to avoid the tragic situation that the transmission is not half-way and the current is exhausted, high-voltage and ultra-high voltage transmission has become the most feasible way. China, which needs to transmit electricity in large quantities over long distances, has the world's top UHV power transmission and transformation technology.

In this process, we need the help of transformers. We learned the basic working principle of transformer in the second grade of primary school, and for a large number of electricity that needs to be boosted, there is a special place for transformer-substation.

As a result, the electricity generated by the power plant is boosted by the booster substation and transmitted through the transmission line. When high voltage is sent to the power consumption area, it is not possible to use it directly. At this time, it is necessary to step down the substation and use the same principle to lower the voltage to the domestic or industrial voltage, so that it can be used by us.

This is also the reason why many substations are built near the community. If the distance is too far, more than half of the electricity will be lost in the transmission, and the situation of electricity consumption before half of the transmission will be repeated again, resulting in a lonely transmission.

It's not easy to cross thousands of mountains and rivers.

A little less loss is a little bit.

If we live near a substation, we don't need to worry about radiation. Within the power system, many substations and the office and living places of the power department are built together.

The reason why we don't have to worry is that the electricity in the substation, like our household appliances, is at a frequency of 50 hertz, the so-called power frequency. It produces very little "electromagnetic radiation" (actually a weak power-frequency electromagnetic field). This frequency is even many times smaller than the WiFi and cell phone signals at home.

When the intensity of electromagnetic radiation exceeds a certain degree

It is possible to cause harm to human body, ▼.

In fact, people from all walks of life have been paying attention to this all the time. From 1996 to 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) also conducted a detailed study on this organization in many countries, and finally found that the daily electromagnetic environment is not harmful to human health.

We don't need to worry too much about the harm of electromagnetic fields to our health.

But we still need to continue to pay attention to the impact of electromagnetic fields on daily life.

(World Health Organization (WHO) EMF Project brochure Picture: WTO) ▼

Knowing electricity to make our lives better in 1821, when Faraday first showed the electromagnetic induction he had discovered, a lady asked, "what's the use of it?" . Faraday replied: "you can't ask what's the use of a baby."

Today, 200 years later, electricity has completely changed our lives, and its development is amazing. In 1949, the electricity for the founding ceremony took months to prepare; now, Faraday's baby is already extremely strong.

The transformation of the world by electric power is changing with each passing day.

Looking back, although it was only a hundred years ago, earth-shaking changes have taken place.

(photo: "me and my motherland") ▼

People may have some doubts and misunderstandings about this fast-growing baby, and we need to know more about him.

In 1992, the United States electromagnetic Field Research and Public data dissemination Program (EMF RAPID) was implemented, which carried out a great deal of research and knowledge dissemination on the effects of electromagnetic fields on human health, so as to make more people understand electricity and related health problems.

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

Followed by the publication of a series of reports and manuals on electromagnetic fields

To show the public the research results of the EMF RAPID project.

(figure: NIEHS) ▼

In China, the power system is also changing our lives all the time. But for a long time, it seems to be ignored by people. Power plants and substations are hidden in the corner of people's life, a standard industrial style, seems to be just a social logistics.

In today's era when the phenomenon of power outage has gradually disappeared, electricity is not only the embellishment of life, but also the builder of a better life.

The lights at night outline what the city looks like.

It shows that electricity is the absolute protagonist in modern urban construction.

Moreover, the original large and bulky traditional substation has gradually evolved into a comprehensive space with the integration of power operation and the popularization of electrical knowledge, and integrated with the texture of urban civilization, becoming a unique urban landscape.

In Shenzhen, the vanguard of reform and opening up, the substations here are as novel and reliable as this vibrant city.

In the Houhai area of Nanshan District, the country's first zero-carbon intelligent science substation will be built. Here will be the place where people know and experience the magic of electricity. The transformer oil used in traditional transformers (mainly for insulation and heat dissipation) will be replaced by more environmentally friendly natural esters (vegetable oils). As for the gas insulation which plays a similar role, the environmentally friendly GIS gas will also replace the toxic sulfur hexafluoride.

At the beginning of reform and opening up, Shenzhen's slogan was "time is efficiency, efficiency is money". In this small area but always full of vitality, every penny can not be wasted.

In Shenzhen, the gradual popularization of mobile substations has made it possible to avoid power outages for refurbishment and renovation work that originally needed a power outage. In the newly built talent apartment, the mobile trolley can transmit electricity in the first place without wasting every moment of life.

This Chinese-style building in Lianhuashan Park in Shenzhen seems to be a landscape decoration in the park, but it is actually a semi-underground substation-hawkaitian substation!

The substation is integrated with the surrounding park environment. It's really cool, ▼.

In addition, substations in Shenzhen have also learned to play hide-and-seek. In the Qianhai area of Nanshan District, an inch of land, a substation is completely hidden in the office building. This is China's first attached substation-switching substation. As a forerunner in this field, Shenzhen Power supply Bureau also drafted the first fire protection standard for attached substations in China.

In the past, people deified the electric current in nature, from Thor to Thunder Gong and Mother, reflecting human fear and worship of this violent force.

In modern times, with the efforts of Franklin, Faraday and other generations of scientists, mankind has gradually domesticated the wanton random current, making it the pulse of industry, the spark of science and technology, lighting up human civilization and making our life better.

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